Friday, June 26, 2020

Newton vs Einstein - Free Essay Example

A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true, for if the things be false, the apprehension of them is not understanding. -Sir Isaac Newton. In the early 1680s Newton published his theory on gravity. Newtons theory proclaimed that gravity was basically a predictable force acting on all matter in the universe. Also that the gravity was related to both the distance and the mass. To summarize it, he thought that the farther away something was/ the less mass it had the less force there would be acting upon the object from gravity. However, later on in the year 1915, Einstein proposed a new theory about gravity that was a little different then Newtons theory. He thought that in space gigantic objects were responsible for distortions in the so called fabric of space and time. Unlike Newton, Einstein did not refer to gravity as a force during his studies, instead deciding to refer to it as the fourth dimension. One way to simulate Einsteins theory on this fabric of space and time is to use a sheet hung up on a base made of pipes so it appears to look like a table. You can then but an assortment of different weights and objects on the cloth to see how they affect the so called fabric of space. Surprisingly, their discoveries also had lots of similarities. For example, in physics it is said that two objects that travel in a straight line parallel of each other should obviously stay in that line and never meet each other. With the theory that Newton proposed it said that due to the gravity involved that small particles from the object would break off and collide with each other because the force attracting the particles and pulling them towards a commonly shared third particle or object. Although Einstein did not describe it quite like this, he did agree with Newton about it. The only difference was that Einstein did not simply thing of gravity as a force but more as a fourth dimension or even a curve in space and time.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Desire Nature s Forbidden Fruit Essay - 1749 Words

Desire: Nature’s Forbidden Fruit Desire is a powerful force that shapes the choices and actions people make every day. It is a concept that humanity is infatuated with, a puzzle to be deciphered on whether it is a truly good force or something that will only lead to a person’s own self destruction. Both the Bhagavad-Gita and Genesis, cornerstones of literature with their fascinating views of humanity, warn that the path down desire is a crooked one that will only lead to misery. The shrewd wisdom these books are infused with is how desire will lead to one’s downfall and ultimately leave a person feeling unfulfilled after having a bite. It may be nature’s forbidden fruit, but it is so for a sane reason. The Gita is a book of things one must do in order to live a prosperous and righteous life as dictated by Krishna. It acts as an advice book from an all-powerful god speaking to Arjuna, who represents the human soul and someone the reader can identify with. The importance of this is so the story is not some fairy tale of an incomprehensible, almost godlike man seeking advice form an even higher deity. Instead, it is an everyday man who needs help and guidance from someone wiser than him which is a much more relatable picture that the reader can identify with and in doing so, take the advice Krishna is giving and apply it to their own life. Throughout all his teachings, one of the basic guidelines Krishna emphasizes is this concept of desire. Desire is characterized as aShow MoreRelatedThe Fantasy Of The Garden Of Eden : The Erotic Nature Of Man1282 Words   |  6 PagesKristin Rajan Class: World Literature Date: December 5, 2014 The Serpent in the Garden of Eden: The Erotic Nature of Man The book of Genesis chronicles the process of Creation and highlights the story of the first man and woman who lived in God s paradise or the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve were both innocent and carefree people until the serpent tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. Many scholars interpreted this scene as the fall of man and believed that the serpentRead MoreThe Beauty Of Spring, By Gerard Manley Hopkins1416 Words   |  6 Pagesbackground, this poem is also about beauty and sin and their effects on nature in relation to the story in the book of Genesis about Adam and Eve. â€Å"Spring† is a Petrarchan sonnet split into an octet and sestet and is organized in such a way to allow Hopkins to discuss beauty and how it (through sin) corrupts itself and humanity personified in the season of spring and Adam and Eve, accordingly. The themes of the beauty of spring and the nature of the Garden and humanity are essential in the poet’s ChristianR ead MoreBiblical And Historical Perspectives Was A Very Insightful1221 Words   |  5 PagesHistorical Perspectives was a very insightful course that I took this semester. At first, I believed that the sole purpose of this course was to comprehend the Bible’s literacy, but eventually I learned that this class went beyond just understanding text(s). According to the syllabus one of the goals for this course was to â€Å"bridge the gap between the symbolic world of biblical texts and our current experience of ourselves and the world, thus enabling students to consciously and intelligently adopt, adaptRead MoreThe Parallel Lives of Ethan Frome and Edward Rochester930 Words   |  4 PagesFrome and Edward Rochester The tale of forbidden love binds itself within many famous works of literature in order to provoke the human mind into situations similar to those of Adam and Eve of the Bible. The â€Å"forbidden fruit† plays an important role in the books of Ethan Frome and Jane Eyre in the form of unattainable but beloved women, where two men, Ethan Frome and Mr. Edward Rochester, share common distinguishable attributes. Their serene sensitive nature soon explodes into a passionate causeRead MoreThe Hours And The Awakening By Edna Pontellier And Laura Brown1341 Words   |  6 PagesA shiny, crisp red fruit hangs enticingly off a lush verdant branch; a sly, seductive serpent and a woman in the nude converse under the sacred tree, and then Eve tentatively reaches up and plucks the juicy crimson fruit, a look of panic only reflected on her face once she realizes the gravity of her decision. She picks the forbidden fruit and her ignorance is ripped away from her like a newspaper on a windy day, and this single act started a trend of succumbing to temptations throughout human historyRead More Fairy Tale or Epic Allegory2749 Words   |  11 Pagessin. Moreover, women were confined to their home and education was denied; it was an era of male dominance (Mitchell 150). Sisters Laura and Lizzie pass through the goblin market; Laura is tempted to taste the fruits and Lizzie warns her not to. But, Laura trades her hair to taste the fruits and she gets sick. Lizzie goes to the goblin market alone to find an antidote for her sister and finally saves her life. This poem might seem like a children’s immaginative story with magical characters, but itRead MoreQuest For An Earthly Paradise And The Anticipation Of A Heavenly One2015 Words   |  9 Pagesprevailed in humankind s search for God and redemption from the original sin. The desire for a terrestrial manifestation of paradise, a so called lost origin is predominantly reflected in writers depictions of the fall of man. This can be seen in Milton s Paradise Lost and Lucy Hutchinson s Order and Disorder. Both these epic poems at times magnify the sadness and gravity of the loss of a paradisal home in which Adam and Eve as our fore parents dwelt under God s close guidance and loveRead MoreParadise Lost Critical Analysis1680 Words   |  7 Pagescontradict the Bible during the 1600’s was a dangerous venture. Milton was already testing the limits of the churches by formulating text for God, so to completely change the Creation Story would be foolish and not to mention, dangerous. So, Milton cunningly reveals inequalities set forth by tradition. In the words of Joseph Wittreich, â€Å"It is a text that deconstructs the traditions it summons, thus revealing what issues have traditionally been concealed or forbidden or repressed,† (Wittreich 43). TheRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne1488 Words   |  6 Pages17th century Boston, Massachusetts. Hester s constant str uggle to discover where she belongs within the Puritan community changes throughout the novel, and so does her relationship towards the Puritan patriarchal authority. The narrator presents Hester as submissive and well-aware of her guilt in accepting her punishment. In the 1850’s when the novel was published, feminism was not widely supported. She only acted upon what she wanted, like her sexual desires; despite the stringent Puritan standardsRead More`` Bioterrorism, Embryonic Stem Cells, And Frankenstein By Patrick Guinan1025 Words   |  5 PagesThe academic article â€Å"Bioterrorism, Embryonic Stem Cells, and Frankenstein† written by Patrick Guinan, discusses the morality and potential hubris of sciences continued exploration of seemingly forbidden areas, as well as humanities identity and potential desire to achieve knowledge to rival God. Guinan s research aims to explore, question, and ultimately bring light to the potential issues that may arise from such pur suits. This research raises several questions, as well as causes of concern, which

Monday, May 18, 2020

Factors Influencing the Prevelence of Addiction Essay

Addiction Everyday we see and hear news articles and reviews that say: â€Å"I cannot put down Twilight†¦ it’s addicting!† or â€Å"I’m a Breaking Bad addict!† The way the term addiction is used in the media these days, many would overlook its actual significance and the trouble it causes for millions across the globe. Recently, many individuals have referred to addiction as anything that is a compulsive need or habit-forming, which could involve everything from substances, like nicotine or alcohol, to activities such as reading a compelling book or getting hooked on a popular television series. Unfortunately, the word has become overused, over diagnosed, and even used as an excuse for one’s wrong behavior. Needless to say, addiction is, and†¦show more content†¦The article’s authors counter the â€Å"Choice Model,† explaining that a person cannot choose whether to be addicted or not. They outline the path leading to addiction by emphasizing the cause as a physical malfunction in the reward circuitry of the brain. They claim that an addict’s abnormalities in his or her reward system causes the addict to achieve the state of euphoria or â€Å"high† by ingesting substances or addictive behaviors. In addition, one’s compulsive behaviors and substance abuse can hurt the reward system and result in â€Å"impaired impulse control and addiction† (Matesa and Bickman), so it is a deleterious cycle. Lastly, the article espouses that the â€Å"Choice Model† is in some way blaming the individual and is a â€Å"setup for relapse† (Matesa and Bickman). Viewing addiction as a disease, the ASAM says, will make it easier for addicts to receive help and conquer addiction. Proponents of the â€Å"Choice Model† disagree, explaining that viewing addiction as a disease is more of a self-fulfilling prophecy than a way to draw help. Alternatively, the â€Å"Choice Model† counters the belief that addiction is a disease, but rather believes it is all a choice when using substances or taking part in compulsive behaviors. Educator, ex-addict, and researcher Steven Slate first compares the â€Å"Disease Theory† to real diseases in his blog, â€Å"Addiction Is Not A Brain Disease, It Is A Choice.† Slate comments that: â€Å"In a true disease, some part of the body is

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Prison Recidivism And Reentry - 3158 Words

Women in Prison: Recidivism and Reentry The study of recidivism amongst women in prison is important because most research focuses on the male population. The reasons for the â€Å"revolving door† phenomenon are different for women; therefore, their treatment should be more gender focused and specific to their needs. Judging by the rates at which women recidivate, you could assume that somewhere along the way the system has failed them. What role does drug use, motherhood, mental health, physical, sexual, and mental abuse play in the recidivism of female inmates? According to Stuart and Brice-Baker (2004), drugs have been one of the major culprits leading to incarceration and repeat criminal offenses among women in recent years. Drug offenses have the largest increase of any crime committed by female offenders. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2012), the most serious offense for 59.4% of women in federal prison and 25.1% of women in state prisons is violatio n of drug laws (Carson Sabol, 2011). In addition, Stuart and Brice-Baker (2004) found that the rise in female criminal behavior and incarceration can be attributed to changes in women’s behavior and changes in the drug laws. The rate of drug sales, use, and addiction has increased, which has caused the number of women incarcerated for drug related crimes to increase. Although drug dealing has commonly been seen as a male dominated criminal activity, women have become more involved in the distributionShow MoreRelatedPrison : Recidivism And Reentry3158 Words   |  13 PagesWomen in Prison: Recidivism and Reentry The study of recidivism amongst women in prison is important because most research focuses on the male population. The reasons for the â€Å"revolving door† phenomenon are different for women; therefore, their treatment should be more gender focused and specific to their needs. Judging by the rates at which women recidivate, you could assume that somewhere along the way the system has failed them. What role does drug use, motherhood, mental health, physicalRead MoreThe Recidivism Rates Throughout The United States849 Words   |  4 Pages Just as the number of people in prison grows, so too does the number of people leaving prison. Research shows that 95 percent of all prisoners in the United States are released at some point (Katel 2009). The Department of Justice reports that more than 600,000 prisoners are released each year (John Oliver 2015). This means that hundreds of thousands of people reenter society and are expected to have learned from their time behind bars. Unfortunately, most of these people released back into societyRead MoreAmerica s High Prison Population1511 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica’s High Prison Population Since the 1970s, America’s prison population rate has risen 700%. Despite the U.S. comprising only 5% of the world’s population, it is the largest jailer with 25% of the world’s prison population with one in 99 adults in prison and one in 31 under some type of correctional control (Mass Incarceration Problems, 2014, p. 1). According to 2013 data, 2.2 million are currently incarcerated in U.S. prisons or jails (Incarceration, 2013, para. 1), a figure that indicatesRead MoreReentry And Reentry Initiatives : Jenifer1445 Words   |  6 Pages Reentry and Reentry Initiatives Jenifer Roberts Brown Mackie College TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT†¦ PAGE 3 INTRODUCTION†¦. PAGE 3 SUMMARY†¦.. PAGE 3 WHAT IS REENTRY†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ PAGE 3 GOALS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT†¦.. PAGE 4 LAW ENFORCEMENT REENTRY INITIATIVES†¦ PAGE 4 REENTRY COURTS†¦.. PAGE 4 WHITE HOUSE OFFICE OF FAITH-BASED AND COMMUNITY INITIATIES†¦ PAGE 5 SERIOUS VILENT OFFENDER REENTRY INITIATIVE (SVORI)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. PAGE 5 TRANSITIONRead MoreThe Strain On Taxpayer s Money Essay1429 Words   |  6 PagesBureau of Prisons, on average, it costs 31,286 dollars to house one inmate. Some Maximum-Security prisons cost as much as 60,000 dollars an inmate and goes on to name that the most expensive prison, Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, costs approximately 90,000 dollars a year (The Law Dictionary, 2012). While the thought of alleviating the cost associated with jails and prisons, is an unreachable goal, the goal of lowering the number of recidivist and in turn lowering overcrowding is attainable. Prison programsRead MoreLong Term Effects Of Reentry Programs On Reducing Juvenile Recidivism Essay943 Words   |  4 PagesEffects of Reentry Programs On   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reducing Juvenile Recidivism   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   By: Tiffany Gilliam La Salle University PHLT 752: Capstone I Introduction Nearly, 5% of the world s population is represented by the United who possesses 25% of the world s prisoners (Liptak, 2008). Approximately 2.2 million prisoners are awaiting pre-trial and 1.6 million post-trial inmates are incarcerated in city, state, and federal prisons throughoutRead MoreThe Recidivism Reduction And Public Safety Act764 Words   |  4 Pages(Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly 1). o The Recidivism Reduction and Public Safety Act of 2014: ï‚ § This act was introduced to congress by Senator Sheldon in 2013. The purpose of the bill was to reduce the prison population, reduce recidivism rates, and make communities safer. ï‚ § The act was passed by congress a year later in 2014. ï‚ § The act directs the U.S. attorney general to â€Å"conduct a review of recidivism reduction programs and productive activities which includes prison jobs offered within correctional facilities†¦Read MoreBeing Released From Prison : A Positive Outlook On Returning1075 Words   |  5 PagesBeing released from prison can be very hard and often the released do not have much of a positive outlook on returning to their communities and staying out of prison. These ex-offenders often return to an area that is disenfranchised and they themselves have a strong sense of anomie and disconnect. This coupled with the lack of resources, skills, opportunities, family ties, health issues, and the now added stigma of a criminal record often leads them back into the lives they may want to escapeRead MoreAn Offender Reentry Plan Will Keep the Citizens of Hawaii Safer.1709 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Department of Public Safety plays a key role in overseeing the management of jails and pri sons. Part of its role is to fulfill its mission of implementing a successful offender reentry program for all incarcerated offenders. This mission is mandated by the Hawaii State Senate Bill 932, Act 8 (Nakaso Kayton, 2007). The approval of this legislature was made in order to alleviate the problem of recidivism and stop the â€Å"swinging door effect.† The â€Å"swinging door effect† is defined as the repeatedRead MoreThe State s Criminal Justice System999 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to a report by Utah’s Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice (2014), the state’s prison population, while lower than most states, has increased more than 18 percent in the last 10 years and Utah annually spends $270 million dollars on corrections (summary, para 1-3). In response to this information, the Utah Legislature of 2015 passed House Bill 348, Criminal Justice Programs and Amendments in an effort to reform the criminal justice system in Utah. The bill ini tiated the state’s Criminal

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Evaluation Of A Sdlc, System Development Life Cycle

1. According to Rosenblatt (2014), a SDLC, system development life cycle, describes how to plan and manage systems development and the activities and functions of systems developers will perform. The waterfall model is divided in five steps and the result of each one is a deliverable to the next step. The first step is called Systems Planning and starts when the IT department does a systems request. This phase is responsible for doing a preliminary investigation to know the situation and evaluate the necessity of this new system. The principal part of this investigation is called feasibility study and it is responsible for showing anticipated reviews of the costs, benefits and course of action. The second step is called Systems Analysis and it purpose is to build a document with the system requirements, showing details as management and user requirements, benefits, development strategies and costs. The third step is the System Design, happens when is necessary to create a physical model and identify the processes (inputs and outputs), satisfying the requirements. Its deliverable is the systems design specification. The fourth step is the System Implementation and during this phase, the new system is constructed. The purpose of this step is to deliver an information system, functio ning and documented. The last step is the Systems Support and Security and during this phase, the IT department is responsible for maintaining, enhancing and protecting the new system. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay on System Development Life Cycle1231 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ System Development Life Cycle Irene Anderson CMGT/582 - CIS Security and Ethics June 23, 2014 Krystal Hall System Development Life Cycle â€Å"Both risk governance and regulatory requirements emphasize the need for an effective risk management plan. And to effectively manage risk, it is important that definitions of the risk management plan objectives are clear from the start, so that the plan can head in the right direction. Risk management of information assets also provides a strongRead MoreSystem Development Life Cycle666 Words   |  3 PagesSTAGE 1 Systems Planning Stage Topic Chapter 2 Analyzing the Business Case Deliverable Preliminary investigation report Toolkit Support Primary tools: Communications, financial analysis, and project management tool Other tool as required. Systems Planning is the first of five stage in the systems development life cycle (SDLC). In this stage, you will learn how IT projects get started and how a system analyst evaluates a proposed project and determine its feasibility. A system analyst’sRead MoreSdlc : System Development Life Cycle758 Words   |  4 PagesSDLC: System Development Life Cycle Definition: The System Development Life Cycle describes functions and activities that system developers perform typically, without considering how those functions and activities actually used in that particular methodology. SDLC denotes a set of general categories that show the major steps, of system development project. These are different phases in SDLC which each of them can be used to denote a step of the process that is followed in the development of certainRead MoreSystem Development Life Cycle ( Sdlc ) Methodologies1448 Words   |  6 Pagesheavily on their information systems for decision making, an essential component of organization management. Information systems serves several purposes in a business, ranging from transactions and assisting leadership with difficult strategy formulation. Advances in computer-based information technology in recent years have led to a widely variety of systems that managers are now using to make and implement decisions (Alter, 1976). In today’s businesses, systems development is a process of examiningRead MoreSystem Development Life Cycle Essay1098 Words   |  5 PagesComputer system plays an important role in solving human problem in their daily life. There are standard steps in order to develop information system called System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). SDLC is the framework available to build a complete system. There are five phases in SDLC which are planning, analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). The first phase in SDLC is planning. In this phase, the potential system development project is identified. ProjectRead MoreSystem Development Life Cycle ( Sdlc )845 Words   |  4 PagesEMAIL:snehasi07@siu.edu What is SDLC? Explain each phase in SDLC with an example. ANALYSIS: DESIGN: DEVELOPMENT: IMPLEMENTATION: EVALUATION: System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) The Systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model that is used in the project management which describes the stages involved in the information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. SDLC is used to correct problems in existing system, and to improveRead MoreWhat The Software Design Life Cycle?1635 Words   |  7 Pagesand explain what the Software Design Life Cycle is The SDLC Software design life cycle is used for the design and development stage of a software system. It’s the structure for design and development the life cycle has multiple stages, there are 9 in total. Requirements, Specification, Design, implementation, testing and debugging, deployment, maintenance and post mortem. All of these stages are part of the software design life cycle. The reason they use the SDLC is to see if the software there producingRead MoreRisk Management Is The Process Of Information System Management Essay942 Words   |  4 PagesRisk management is the process of information system managers applies to balance the operational and economic costs of protective measures for their information and information systems. As a part risk management process, organizations (Stoneburner, 2002) select and apply security controls for their information and information systems. The System development life cycle is the overall process of developing, implementing and ret iring information systems through a multiple process from initiation, designsRead MoreEssay on Week 8 Case Study: Database Development1386 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Running head: DATABASE DEVELOPMENT Week 8 Case Study: Database Development Professor – Dr. Hossein Besharatian CIS 512 September 14, 2013 Table of Contents Abstract This paper defines the Software Development Life Cycle phases specifically the Waterfall method with a review of tasks to improve the quality of datasets throughout the cycle. It includes recommendations of actions to be performed for full optimization for enhancing performance from data quality assessmentRead MoreSdlc ( Software Development Life Cycle ) Methodology1714 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract: In this report we are going to explore about SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) Methodology and we are discussing about the differences between SDLC and Agile Project Management. Firstly we discuss about basics of SDLC Methods and their SWOT Analysis their mission and visions , And we are discussing their basic differences in it Before we get into actual discussion we need to know about three main thing of SDLC methods they are : 1) Design of software to meet the requirements 2)

Frankeinstien Unit Test Part 2 Free Essays

Name: |Date: 3-11-13 | |Graded Assignment Unit Test, Part 2: Frankenstein Answer each question using complete sentences. Answer Questions 1 and 2 with responses of no less than one paragraph. Answer Questions 3 with a response of no less than three paragraphs. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankeinstien Unit Test Part 2 or any similar topic only for you Order Now (15 points) |Score | | | 1. Explain Mary Shelley’s use of reoccurring ideas (motif) in Frankenstein and provide at least two examples of this reoccurring image or idea from the text. Answer: -The women in the story were passive and suffered silently, like Justine who was executed for a crime she didn’t commit. Also abortion, Victor aborts his act of creating the female monster. (15 points) |Score | | | 2. What does duality mean? What examples from the text can you give as examples of duality? What do these examples say about the nature of human life in general? Answer: Duality is the state of quality of being two or in two parts. The monster shows duality in his ability to have and show love for others, and wanting for people to love him too. The flip side to that is his hatred for himself and wanting to destroy his creator for making him. (25 points) |Score | | | 3. Think about some of the characteristics (are they smart, dumb, tall, short, loud, quiet, funny, caring? ) of the 2 main characters in this story: Victor Frankenstein and his monster. How are these 2 characters similar? How are they different? Which of these two characters do you have compassion for the most? Why? Please give examples (quotes) from the novel. Answer: Victor and his monster are alike because they both share a dislike for each other, and the monster. Victor and his monster are both alone. They are different, because victor was raised by his family who loved him, while the monster was brought to life and basically abandoned by his creator who didn’t love him. |Your Score |___ of 55 | How to cite Frankeinstien Unit Test Part 2, Essay examples

Organisational Culture and Organisational Structure

Question: Discuss about theOrganisational Culture and Organisational Structure. Answer: Introduction Organisational culture is a system consists of explicit and implicit instructional techniques and policies, designed to outline the various work functions and responsibilities. Organisational culture signifies the combined values, beliefs and the ideologies of the members of an organisation and is a collective product of several factors such as, product, history, values, market strategies, employees, management strategies, national cultures, also the beliefs, norms, systems of the particular organisation. In this essay, the famous Australian supermarket chain Woolworths Limited is taken to analyse the organisational culture, the organisational structure, and the application within the organisation. (Methner, Hamann and Nilsson 2015) The major factors determining the organisational culture are symbols, rituals, story, and control and power link. The symbols in an organisational culture determine the human behaviour within the company. Symbols trigger to remind people the rules and regulations, beliefs and policies within the culture. They sometimes act as a simple way to keep the employees aligned. Those can also be used as the indication status with the organisational culture, containing office decor, clothing etc. The status symbols are indicators to use the proper behaviour with others in the hierarchy within the organisation (Neuhaus et al. 2014). The symbols determine the appropriate attitude towards other employees according to their status and position in the company. There might be several symbols around a company, starting from welcoming cultural members around the globe to the pictures of different products on the walls. Rituals are an integral element in an organisational culture. It generally contribu tes to the operating process of the company. The rituals are the procedure or the set of proceedings, which are repeated in a specific situation with a particular meaning, but it also had a symbolic part to embody the values of the company. The stories within an organisation are the sequence of true events, though often exaggerated when told to the new employees. The most common narratives in an organisation are the stories of the founders or the chief leaders, the challenges they have faced and their way to deal with those hurdles etc. In a way, these stories are mainly used to encourage the employees; also, these are the medium of carrying the legacy in a company. The organisational culture also influences the management to have a control over its employees. If the management has a definite form of guidance, well-described jobs, and authoritative decision taking procedures, it is considered to have a formal process of control over its employees, whereas, the collective decision-ma king process is considered a cultural way of control. This also depends on the power link within the organisation, which describes the hierarchy (Persson 2013). With respect to the in-house environment in Woolworths, there are few major points in implementing the organisational culture. Woolworths has always been an example of excellent leadership and creating a sustainable environment by closely working with their suppliers. They have improved their amount of profit and overall organisational culture through it as well. The workspace is considered as a driver of the performance of the employees. The culture creates a sense of continuity, order and commitment in the employees, so that they can work with dedication. Having a perfectly implemented organisational culture establishes a sense of positivity within the employees, so that they also have the encouragement for work (Persson 2013). Woolworths always aims to improve their organisational culture by involving themselves in the community and working together towards the constant growth of the company. This always helps to improve the personality of an employee, where he has the correct amb ience to work (Shields et al. 2015). There are few challenges in implementing the organisational culture in a company, because there are always commitment issue among the employees. Different teams might have issues against each other, like the sales and the accounts team can turn against each other; logistics and manufacturing team might have conflicts between them on the basis of creating new products. This can always affect the productivity of the company. However, several surveys show that, to increase the employee loyalty, the leadership needs to be effective and strong, and the personal issues should be kept aside when it comes to company growth. Organisational Structure Organisational structure can be an ambiguous term to determine, but to state it minimally, it can be said that it defines a specific hierarchy in a company of every shape and size. However, the organisational strategy is the plan to execute the use of the primary resources in the company. The organisational structure plays a major role to achieve the general strategy in a company, where the organisational culture plays a very important role to accomplish the company policies as well. There are several issues in a company for the execution of the organisational structure; one of the major issues is the function. Several companies use vertical or horizontal structure to grow rapidly. Mostly small companies use the horizontal structure, where the manager can directly contact the president. It also defines the distribution of authority within the organisation. The company needs to channelize their communication flow through the team leaders, so that the employees do not get confused about the reporting. In fact, the structure helps the employers define the skills of their employees as well. The linear structure helps the superintendents to evaluate the progress of the work of their employees (Sorensen and Stanton 2013). If the work-progresses are sorted within the company, it is helpful in achieving the targets as well. It can also be said, that the structure promotes teamwork, where all the employees work towards a common goal. The structure also allows the change i n the company policy. In other words, the structure is helpful to regulate the company policies. The six key element of organisational structure are Work specialization, Departmentalisation, Chain of command, Span of control, Centralisation and decentralisation, and Formalisation. The company structure entirely depends on these key elements and they determine the flow of the strategies as well. (Hubbard, Rice and Galvin 2014) Woolworths is a popular company, grown rapidly within few years, and has around 400 stores all over Australia. The company is known to be polite and respectful towards their employees and considers them the biggest assets in the organisation. Woolworths always believe in assigning right job to right people. They always work together to make their employees better and more committed retailers. Woolworths has classified their organisation into different sectors to departmentalize their tasks (Lozano 2013). In the organisation, the chain of command is a continuous flow of control, where an employee is answerable to his direct superintendent. The sales managers of both the retail and the wholesale accounts are answerable to the director of sales. The functional and the divisional structure of Woolworths is divided in a designed way. The company follows the divisional structure, where the general manager of any retail outlet is always responsible for their performances in every sector. There are several challenges in the implementation of the organisational structure like the communication problem, delegation of responsibility in different sectors etc. Apart from that, the implementation can cost a fortune for the company. Nevertheless, there are few proposed changes can be done, like developing the right job description for the employee, so that there will not be any confusion or difficulty in assigning any task (Bailey 2016). If there are huge gaps between the job requirement and the employee profile, the growth of the company can be hampered. The company can plan an organisational chart after a certain interval to avoid misunderstanding. Reference List Bailey, M., 2016. Absorptive Capacity, International Business Knowledge Transfer, and Local Adaptation: Establishing Discount Department Stores in Australia.Australian Economic History Review. Hubbard, G., Rice, J. and Galvin, P., 2014.Strategic management. Pearson Australia. Lozano, R., 2013. Are companies planning their organisational changes for corporate sustainability? An analysis of three case studies on resistance to change and their strategies to overcome it.Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management,20(5), pp.275-295. Methner, N., Hamann, R. and Nilsson, W., 2015. The Evolution of a Sustainability Leader: The Development of Strategic and Boundary Spanning Organizational Innovation Capabilities in Woolworths. InThe Business of Social and Environmental Innovation(pp. 87-104). Springer International Publishing. 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